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Consciousness and Will in Their Rela-
tion TO Culture and Character, . 3
Editorial Notes, 9
Personal Notes, 15
Book Notices 17
CONSCIOUSNESS AND WILL IN THEIR
RELATION TO CULTURE AND
By C. S. COLER ('S3), M. S., Principal Sandusky Iligli
"A cultivated man, wise to know and bold to perform, is
the end for which nature works."' — Kmerson,
Man's truest greatness lies within him-
The soul, like the flower, is destined to
growth and development.
Like the flower, also, it gathers its
beauty and fragrance from sources of
which we are little aware. Both are sus-
ceptible of culture.
Culture in its truest sense differs from
education, implying as it does greater
development of the sensibilities and
greater assimilation of knowledge.
Time, leisure, manners, society, are all
necessary to culture.
The purpose of education is to make
The purpose of culture is to make man
The prayer of Socrates was, "Grant, oh
gracious gods, that I may be beautiful
within ! "
True culture regards the soul as the
grandest of all created things.
For the soul all things exist. For it
stars hold their courses and systems re-
volve in obedience to law. For it the uni-
verse was created and the Son of Man
came to earth to teach the ways of God.
The dew-drop and the ocean, the atom
and the world, science, art, history, philos-
ophy, poetry, religion, all contribute to
the great work of culture.
Culture must, therefore, be regarded as
the chief end of human life.
The man of true culture is a man in all
his faculties and powers.
He has perception, memory, imagina-
tion, reason, conscience, affection, will, —
all these, fresh, vigorous, and active, go to
make up a genial spirit of intellectual life
which animates his every act.
His character is not a passive thing for
outward circumstances to shape and
Give such a man the most common
material and out of it he will rear a sub-
Give him but ordinary advantages and
he will, like Cromwell, or Luther, bring
about a revolution, or organize an institu-
tion that shall stand for ages.
The problem of civilization has been to
reach such a state of society as would
serve for the highest good of the individ-
ual and at the same time for the highest
good of the community at large.
Civilization at the present time is in
many ways antagonistic to the highest
development of the individual.
Character is overlooked. Fashion and
custom rule supreme. The individual is
sacrificed for the good of society, — if good
it may be called.
Not by looking at what society wants,
but by a deep and careful study of what
our own nature wants are we developed to
the highest degree.
"Every brave heart," says Emerson,
" must treat society as a child and not
allow it to dictate."
Accuracy and acuteness of perception,
strength and readiness of memory, healthy
and comprehensive imagination, ability to
reason, breadth and activity of sensibility,
OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN.
and power to will, — these are some of the
things to be aimed at in every system of
But while these faculties of mind and
powers of soul are being strengthened and
invigorated, the consciousness that pre-
sides over them must also receive atten-
No education is complete without the
proper development of consciousness.
There is, of course, such a thing as "ab-
normal " consciousness, and some writers
go so far as to discourage the develop-
ment of consciousness.
They say :
" The centipede was happy quite,
Until the toad for fun,
Said, ' Pray which foot comes after which? '
This worked her mind to such a pitch,
She lay distracted in the ditch.
Considering how to run."
Another writer says : " Only instinctive
action is swift, sure, and firm."
We grant that the best action of both
soul and body is unconscious action.
But it comes to be unconscious action
largely by practice and repetition.
It may be truly said of consciousness —
"A little learning is a dangerous thing."
We need to
" Drink deep of the Pierian spring."
Consciousness is the power of the soul
to know (1) its own existence, (2) its own
relations, (3) its own acts and states.
It is an infallible instinct of the soul
itself, the action of which is superior to
all its other fundamental exercises. It is
the inner light, revealing the phenomena
of the inner world just as perception re-
veals the phenomena of the external
Dr. Hopkins says: " Consciousness is
the knowledge, by the mind, of itself as the
permanent and individual subject of its
He further says of consciousness that it
is universal, that it is not a faculty, that it^
does not exist alone, that it is infallible,
that it is not under the control of the will,
and that its office is to bind all the opera-
tions of mind into unity.
It is the basis of modern philosophical
" I think," says Descartes, "therefore I
am." We thus see that the nature of con-
sciousness is such as to make it an essen-
tial factor in the development of all the
fundamental operations of mind and soul.
In all true culture the nature and im-
portance of consciousness should be
brought out clearly and distinctly, and its
rightful authority should be recognized.
Here it is that we meet with one of the
greatest defects of our popular education.
The power of spiritual nature is wanting.
Knowledge stops short of its end.
Experience touches only the surface.
The depths of vitality of the soul are not
Men become shrewd, sharp, and com-
petent, but it is all at the expense of the
self-searching power, of deep-seated con-
sciousness, of genuine culture.
"The object of education," says Bishop
Spalding, " is to make men good and
reasonable, not to make them smart and
eager for possession and indulgence."
The man of true culture is more than a
highly polished piece of apparatus.
Facility and force can not satisfy his
Knowing the power of prejudice, the
fallaciousness of reason and of conscience,
he .carries a large, genial, purified heart
into every pursuit of life.
Such a man is not a thinking machine,
but a thinking soul.
He scorns any proposal whose object is
simply to coin his ability and his powers
His influence for good is felt wherever
He has a manly self-reliance and heeds
not siren voices that would turn him from
The music of his own soul outrivals the
sweetest notes that Orpheus ever sung.
" What and how great the virtue and the art.
To live on little with a cheerful heart."
" What nothing earthly gives nor can destroy.
The soul's calm sunshine and the heart-felt joy."
For the great work of culture we are
everywhere surrounded with the amplest
Emerson says : " Every object of na-
ture serves for use, for beauty, for lan-
guage, or for discipline."
By intelligent labor the materials and
forces of nature are made still more useful
OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN.
Wind and water serve him. The light-
ning of the heavens is made obedient to
his touch. The stars guide his course, and
at every step of his progress he avails
himself of a yet greater agency, a more
hidden law, or a more subtle force, to aid
him in executing his earthly sovereignity.
(Only yesterday I saw an invention for
collecting the rays of sunshine and con-
verting them into electricity to be stored
in batteries for use as heat, light and
Man changes the forest trees into a
habitation of beauty. He polishes the
rude stones and forms them into monu-
ments to commemorate his deeds.
He touches the canvass and makes it
glow with the forms of passing sweetness.
With his magical hand he produces
sounds that rival the "music of the
By his ever-contriving ingenuity he
transforms the materials of nature and
multiplies wonders more rapidly than
commerce can diffuse them.
" But man cannot live by bread alone."
The growth of consciousness is worth
more than the maturing of intellect for
merely utilitarian ends.
To be a man in the hush of the soul, in
the light of one's own consciousness, —
this is a consummation more desirable
than the achievement of wealth or fame.
Culture brings this possibility within
reach of every one.
In a degree it makes man master of his
fate, and enables him, as the poet says,
" To build a new life on a ruined life.
To make the future fairer than the past,
And make the past appear a troubled dream."
For in the hour of thoughtful medita-
tion, of earnest self-searching, man may
experience a change within himself that is
beyond his power of comprehension, and,
like Bunyan of old, walk forth among his
fellow men a more impressive wonder
than the whole material world can show.
" For man indeed, must know,
There is but little here below.
Except what in himself is found "
Swedenborg was wont to say that every
person creates his own heaven or hell.
Milton expresses the same thought thus:
" The soul is its own place.
And contains a heaven in itself,
Or in itself a hell."
Spenser says :
" So every spirit, as it is most pure.
And hath in it the more of heavenly light,
So it the fairer body doth procure
To habit in, and it more fairly dight.
With cheerful grace and amiable sight.
For, of the soul the body form doth take,
For soul is form, and doth the body make."
And another :
" Every soul builds for itself a house.
And beyond its house a world.
And beyond its world a heaven."
But consciousness of itself is not enough
to effect the great work of culture.
There must also be a resolute and un-
yielding force of will calmly and patiently
Hardship must be endured ; antago-
nistic circumstances must be encountered ;
the powers of mind must be directed ; the
whole moral nature must be subdued and
brought under control.
Just as " there is no gold-mine country
that is traversed by good roads," so in the
work of culture the way is not always
The person who would attain to true
culture must fortify himself against dis-
couragement and defeat.
Obstacles must be encountered ; even
sorrow and suffering must be experienced,
for without these no discipline can be
The aim of true culture is to develop
character in the truest and broadest sense
of the word.
Character when thus considered does
not stop with the individual, but includes
man in his relation to his fellow man and
to the universe in which he lives.
The most important factor of character
is the Will. The greatest force in the
world is man, and one of the most irresist-
ible forces in man is his will.
When the brow is knit, when the teeth
are shut, when the hand is clenched, when
the soul gathers its strength together and
makes the final resolution to accomplish
some noble deed, then it is that mountains
sink into mole-hills and man becomes in-
deed the vicegerent of God.
The world stands as it is today because
of a few such resolutions, made and car-
Science and art would be mere fanciful
dreams if the strong will did not execute
their conceptions and designs.
OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN.
It is thus that the dreams and specula-
tions of one age become the realities of
It is due to the strong will that the new
worlds have been discovered, that conti-
nents have been spanned by wire and rail,
and that we talk with persons across the
sea almost as readily as with our neighbors
across the street.
In war the victory has almost invariably
fallen to the leaders of strongest will.
Caesar, Hannibal, Napoleon, Washing-
ton, Grant, are examples of what deter-
mination and perseverance can accom-
Politics is but little more than a war of
And thus we might go on from the
greatest to the most trivial affairs of life,
and everywhere we should see that suc-
cess remains for the persons who can will.
The strong will is of the greatest im-
portance in forming character also.
Bad habits must be broken up.
Good resolutions must be carried out.
In short, it is the strong will, kept well in
hand, that gives self-control, self-respect,
and dignity and strength of character.
But the influence of the will does not
It reaches down to conduct.
It is able to exert a stronger influence
over the body than any other powers of
the soul. Many persons die because they
do not will to live. What would Napoleon
have cared for a scratch on the hand or
the loss of a finger ?
The strong will triumphs over difficulty
and defeat. We recall how Demosthenes
stammered and failed in his first efforts as
an orator, but how he finally carried
everything before him.
Garrison was not able to command at-
tention when he began his great work, but
he said, " I zviUhe. heard !" and we know
When Disraeli, the Jew, first spoke in
the English House of Commons, he was
laughed at and howled into silence. He
calmly said, " The time will come when
you will hear me ! " And he made his
At the time of the throwing of a bomb
in the French Chamber of Deputies
(which occurred about two years ago),
while the room was filled with smoke, and
the groans of the wounded were heard
above everything else, the President calm-
ly arose and said, " Gentlemen, this ses-
sion continues. It would not be to the
dignity of France if such an affair as this
should disturb our deliberations. We will
hear from the next speaker ! "
The will also has the controlling influ-
ence over all the other powers of the soul.
The intellect with its faculties of percep-
tion, of representation, of elaboration ;
the sensibilities, — emotions, appetites, af-
fections and desires, — all these may be
made subservient to the will.
All writers on ethical and psychological
subjects recognize the importance of will
power in directing and controlling the
perceptive and intellectual faculties.
Attention is almost wholly dependent
upon the will. We see for the most part
what we will to see. We hear for the
most part what we will to hear. We taste
for the most part what we will to taste.
In like manner also the representative
powers of intellect, — fantasy, memory,
imagination, are all subject to the will,
both as to the object to which they are
directed and the duration and intensity
with which they act.
This is true to a very limited e.xtent of
fantasy, to a greater extent of memory,
and to a much greater extent of imagina-
The elaborative faculty of mind is also
subject to the will.
Newton tells us that the great work he
accomplished was due to self-denial, con-
centration and long-continued effort. But
all of these things depend upon will
Edison frequently locks himself in a
room in his laboratory and resolves not to
eat or sleep till he has solved some diffi-
Boswell reports Dr. Johnson as saying
that a man can write well at any time "if
he will but set himself doggedly about it."
Bishop Butler, Wordsworth, Carlyle, and
Kant controlled their thoughts largely by
controlling, what were to them, the circum-
stances necessary to thinking.
But it is in relation to sensibility that
the will is of greatest importance in effect-
It is in the realm of sensibility also that
consciousness and will power are brought
most closely together.
Whether the appetite for strong drink
or for narcotics shall characterize or con-
trol the individual depends upon his power
of will. And so with all appetites.
The desires, too, are subject to the will
OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN.
both as to the object desired and the in-
tensity with which they are exercised.
We are warned against covetousness, in-
ordinate ambition, vanity, selfishness;
we are exhorted to be industrious, self-
sacrificing, generous, and this, on the
ground that these characteristics are
largely a matter of choice with ourselves.
The will has the controlling influence
over the affections also.
Love of kindred, love of country, love
of humanity, gratitude, sympathy, pity,
are all to be cultivated and made a part
of our very being.
On the other hand, anger, resentment,
revenge, jealousy, ingratitude, selfishness,
are to be put down and cast out so that
the soul may know them no more.
This, too, must be done by the will, if
not directly, then indirectly, by placing the
soul in such attitude to some other influ-
ence that the desired result may follow.
Praise for performing, or censure for not
performing this important work of culture
in relation to the affections goes to show
that it is dependent upon the free will of
The emotions, beauty, grandeur, sublim-
ity, cheerfulness, happiness, joy, and even
conscience, are largely under the control
of the will, and hence enter into the great
work of culture.
In considering these various manifesta-
tions of sensibility and their dependence
upon the will, it should be borne in mind
that although some of them may not of
themselves be subject to the will to any
great extent, it is within the power of the
will very largely to control the circum-
stances upon which they all depend.
Although consciousness is not under the
control of the will, as has been said, yet
the conditions necessary for the exercise
and development of consciousness are in
a great measure subject to the will, and
hence it is that in the work of culture con-
sciousness and will are the most essential
The result of culture is character. Gar-
field used to say, that character is the,
joint product of nature and nurture. We
grant this to be true, but of the two ele-
ments, nature and nurture, nurture is the
Happy may he be who is born well.
But thrice happy is he who has subdued
his own nature and built for himself a
"There is no thing we cannot overcome ;
Say not thy evil instinct is inherited.
Or that some trait inborn
Makes thy whole life forlorn
And calls down punishment that is not merited."
" Pry up thy faults with this great power, Will !
However deeply bedded in posterity,
However firmly set,
I tell thee firmer yet
Is that vast power that comes from truth's
H. W. IV.
Indecision, vacillation, stupidity, indif-
ference, are for the most part the result
of a weak will, and may, if treated in due
time and manner, be largely overcome.
Self-reliance, honesty, truthfulness,
energy, enthusiasm, pluck, perseverance,
resignation, faith — all of these essential
elements of character are dependent upon
the will, as a little consideration will
The word enthusiasm, for instance, _
originally meant, "possessed of, or by a
Holmes says: "Faith in something
and enthusiasm for something is what
makes life worth living."
We all know that enthusiasm is largely
under the control of the will. Many per-
sons fail in the enterprises of life for lack
of enthusiasm, while others of much less
ability succeed because of it.
Mere bustle is not enthusiasm. The
best kind of enthusiasm is that which
acts quietly and shows itself by its results.
Industry, too, is largely dependent upon
the will. It is not natural for most peo-
ple to like hard work. But by being
trained to it from youth up, hard work
may become a sort of second nature.
Dr. Johnson used to say of himself that
he was naturally lazy, and that whatever
he had accomplished, he had done by
force of will. Something like this is true
of every one. Work means effort, and
will power is necessary to effort.
One of the noblest forms of will power
is courage. Courage dares to do some-
thing. It takes risks. It rises to emer-
gencies. It consults neither priests nor
prophets. It obeys neither fashion nor
custom. It bows to the dictates of
neither monarchs nor nobles. It stands
alone, a law unto itself, and is its own
OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN.
Reflection, or self-examination, is also
dependent upon the will. Reflection is
the field where judgment, consciousness,
will, and conscience meet for conference.
Some of the most successful men of
whom history gives an account have made
it a rule to sleep over every matter of
importance. Reflection is the great pre-
ventive of regret and remorse.
It is the scholar's companion. Emer-
son says : " The life of the scholar
should be checkered by solitude. It is
the safeguard of mediocrity. It is to
genius the cold, obscure shelter where
moult the wings which will bear it farther
than suns and stars."
We thus see that both culture and char-
acter are developed, for the most part,
from within. They have to do with the
soul, with its relations, its acts, its states,
its powers, its possibilities.
But while culture holds all things subor-
dinate to the soul, it needs the presence
and the power of consciousness to give it
life and depth.
The culture of intellect- that ends in
intellect is but a fleeting good. The great
fountain of truth is in sensibility.
" It is the heart, and not the brain,
That to the highest doth attain ;
And he who foUoweth love's behest,
Far excelleth all the rest."
Longfellow says also :
" Feeling is deep and still ; and the world that
Floats on the surface
Is as the tossing buoy that betrays where the
Anchor is hidden,
Therefore trust to thy heart, and to what the
World calls illusions."
Too much of our education, so-called,
touches only the surface. A book is
mere paper unless it enters character.
Science, art, philosophy, poetry, relig-
ion, are mere childish amusements unless
they enlarge and ennoble the soul.
It is by a careful study of the growth
and phenomena of the soul as revealed
by consciousness, and by wise and deter-
mined force of will, that we become mas-
ters of ourselves and of the powers we
Our public school system is a noble
institution. But does it not fail in this
matter of developing consciousness and
the power of will ?
Does not the rapidity with which pupils
are taken from one branch of study to
another tend to destroy depth of con-
sciousness and cultivate the habit of shal-
lowness and of sham ?
Do not the " aids " and artificial " meth-
ods of teaching" leave but little for the
child to do for himself, and thus deprive
him of the opportunity and means of
developing will power and of forming
desirable traits of character ?
Nature's method of culture is to
address the whole being of man. She
does not remove all difficulties. She
throws us upon our own responsibilities.
She appeals to the individual. She is no
separatist. Where she offers poetry there
she offers philosophy. On the records of
the past she has written the prophecy of
the future. She is no respecter of per-
sons. Sunshine and shower fall alike
upon rich and poor, upon just and unjust.
The rudest peasant may drink deeper
at her fountain than the most pretentious
The Maid of Orleans puts to shame the
most gallant Generals. The rugged rail-
splitter becomes the leader of a great
The news boy, Edison, self-taught and
self-maintained, outstrips the college
Nature loves completeness. She does
not dote on specialties. Her aim is to
build up a force of character that may
manifest itself through any faculty, flow
out in any channel, and reach any end
that may be desired.
True culture comes from following the
laws of nature as revealed by observation,
by reason, and by consciousness.
" Some place the bliss in action, some in ease.
Those call it pleasure, and contentment these ;
Take Nature's path and mad opinion's leave.
All states may reach it and all heads conceive,
Observe her goods, in no extremes they dwell.
It needs but thinking right and meaning well.''
Culture should be the aim of every
life. For as Sir William Hamilton truly
"Unless above himself
He can erect himself.
How low a thing is man ! "
But when brought up to the highest
and best to which he is capable of becom-
ing, we may, with Shakespeare, say :
OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN.
" What a piece of work is man !
How noble in reason !
How infinite in faculties !
In form and moving, how express
And admirable !
In action, how like an angel !
In apprehension, how like a God ! "
Through culture comes the only true
good, the only lasting happiness. Our
study then should be to get at the heart
of things and not be content with out-
ward forms. For us, nothing is really
true until it has passed through intellect
and penetrated the soul.
Nothing from without becomes a power
within till it blends itself with the moral
majesty of our being.
There is a pleasure that comes to the
tiller of the soil as he looks over his fields
of grain and grazing herds and realizes
that it is by his own toil that they have
There is a pleasure for the architect as
he looks upon the finished structure of
his own hands.
There is a pleasure for the artist as he
puts the finishing stroke on the piece of
work before him, well knowing that it is
There is a pleasure for the scientist as
he unfolds some hidden truth in the
realms of the material world.
There is a pleasure for the author who
has completed his masterpiece and finds
that it meets with the approval of the
There is yet a greater pleasure for the
person who has built up for himself a
noble character and wisely and prudently
improved every talent that was within his
For the great work of culture the whole
universe is accessible to every mind.
Earth, air, water, the sky above us, the
grass beneath our feet, all are symbols of
higher and better things.
The history of the past, the activity of
the present, the infinite faculties of the
mind, the finer sensibilities of the soul,
the hopes we have for the future — all
prompt us to a life of culture and of
But as Longfellow truly says :
"The longing for ignoble things ;
The strife for triumph more than truth ;
The hardening of the heart that brings
Irreverence for the dreams of youth ;
All these must first be trodden down
Beneath our feet, if we would gain.
In the bright fields of fair renown,
The right of eminent domain."
The Ohio University Commencement
this year has created more than ordinary
interest. Alumni and visitors began to
reach Athens on Saturday, June 22d. On
Sabbath morning Commencement exer-
cises began with President Super's bacca-
laureate address. The exercises were held
in the City Hall, all the churches adjourn-
ing to listen to the address. Dr. Super,
in a profoundly philosophical discourse,
discussed some of the leading problems
of the day with an idea of their solution.
It was an able handling of educational
questions. Sabbath evening, Dr Henry
A. Buttz, president of Drew Theological
Seminary, Madison, N. J., preached the
annual sermon in the Methodist Church.
Dr. Buttz is too well known in Church cir-
cles to need further introduction. He
chose for his theme, " A True Life is the
Test of True Learning." It was a beau-
tiful and sympathetic appeal, establishing
a Scriptural basis for the highest charac-
ter and the noblest achievement. Every
one felt that his presence was inspiring
On Monday evening was held the an-
nual contest of the Athenian, Philomathe-
an, and Adelphian Societies. The judges
were Professor F. VV. Shepardson, Chica-
go, 111.; Junius E. Beal, Ann Arbor, Mich.;-
Hon. W. F. Trickett, Carlisle, Pa., on
thought and composition ; and Rev. W.
E. dArgent, Gallipolis, O.; Hon. S. H.
Hurst, Chillicothe, Ohio; Waltman Barbe,.
Parkersburg, W. Va., on delivery. Asso-
ciate Professor Catherine A. Findley
acted as chairman for the occasion. The
winning contestants were Charles M.
Copeland, Athenian essayist ; W. K.
Greenbank, Athenian debater ; and Sam-
uel Half, Philomathean orator. In points,
the victory was declared in favor of the
Athenians. It was one of the most in-
teresting contests that has ever been
On Tuesday evening the eighth annual
pedagogical Commencement was celebra-
ted. Fannie C. Bean, Margaret A. Dick
and J. Chase Dovvd received short peda-
gogical certificates, while Chas. W. Cook-
son and U. M. McCaughey were granted
the degree of B. Ped. After the exercises
the alumni banqueted at College Hall,
where Miss Margaret Boyd, the first
woman graduate, presided. The banquet
OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN.
closed with the usual amount of toasting.
The next morning, at the business-meet-
ing, the Alumni Association elected the
following officers : President, Miss Lilli-
an E. Michael ; vice-president, Herbert R.
McVay ; secretary, B. O. Higley ; treas-
urer, H. E. Dickason. L. M. Jewett, Eli
Dunkle, D. J. Evans, E. J. Jones and T.
R. Biddle constitute the Executive Com-
mittee. More enthusiasm than ever was
On Wednesday the trustees held their
annual meeting. Plans for a new Ladies'
Hall were accepted. This provides for a
large, three-story, brick building, elegant-
ly equipped, to be used as a dormitory
and boarding-place for the ladies. When
completed, in September, it will be one of
the finest buildings in the town. Professor
H. M. Conaway was given leave of absence
for a year to attend Columbia University,
where he holds a scholarship in History.
Mr. Clyde Brown, member of the senior
class, was employed as a member of the
faculty for the following year. Honorary
degrees were conferred as follows : A. M.
on L. D. Bonebrake, of Mt. Vernon, and
on A. M. Post, a judge of Supreme Court
of Nebraska ; L. H. D. on Superintendent
E. S. Cox, of Sidney ; D. D. on F. S. Da-
vis, of Zanesville ; A. B. Carver, of Yonk-
ers. Nearly every member of the Board
was present and remained for the gradua-
ting exercises the next day. Wednesday
evening a powerful address on "Socrates
and the Moderns" was delivered in the
City Hall by Bishop Samuel Fallows, of
Chicago. On Thursday morning the col-
lege Commencement was held in the City
Hall. The degree of B. A. was conferred
upon five members of the class ; B. Ph. on
four ; B. Ped. on three ; B. S. on four.
Two former students and a post-graduate
from the University of Missouri received
the degree of M. S. The speeches of the
graduates were of an exceptionally high
order in thought, composition, and deliv-
ery. It was one of the best classes that
has left the University. Commencement
week would not be full were not some-
thing said about the fraternity reunions
and banquets. First, Hon. C. H. Gros-
venor opened his elegant home to the
Phi Delta Pi's, the ladies' fraternity. On
Friday evening, June 21st, the Delta Tau
Delta Fraternity banqueted at Hotel
Berry. Major C. H. Townsend, recently
elected G. A. R. Commander for the Ohio
Encampment, acted as toastmaster. The
members and their guests spent a most
delightful evening. On Monday evening
the Phi Delta Theta Fraternity held their
banquet at Hotel Berry. There was a
large and enthusiastic attendance. Music
was furnished by the Phi Sextette, with
Newman Bennett as soloist. At the ban-
quet table Mr. Wm. E. Bundy, of Cincin-
nati, presided as toastmaster. Among the
guests were the Hon. James M. Tripp, of
Jackson ; Dr. J. E. Brown, of Columbus ;
Hon. Charles H. Grosvenor, of Athens ;
Hon. Lucien J. Fenton, of Winchester ;
Hon. V. C. Lowry, of Logan ; Rev. S. F.
McKim, of State Center, Iowa, and Pro-
fessor Wm. M. Stine, of Armour Institute,
On Wednesday evening, Mr. and Mrs.
J. D. Brown opened their elegant home to
the Beta Theta Pi Fraternity, Mr. Brown
being a member. After the address in the
City Hall, about thirty couples repaired to
the place of the banquet. Soon the large
and enthusiastic company were served
with an elegant niemt, prepared by caterer
Berry. The usual after-dinner speeches
were delivered. Professor Willis Bough-
ton acted as toastmaster. Professor H.
M. Conaway responded to the toast of
" Beta Kappa." Mr. D. H. Thomas fol-
lowed with a brief speech on " The Beta
Student." The Hon. G. W. Boyce not
being able to be present, his toast, "The
Beta Brother," was responded to by L. M.
Jewett. Mr. L. G. Worstell followed with
"The Beta as a Citizen." Then all were
charmed with the stirring words of Dr. D.
H. Moore, in response to the sentiment,
" Our Strong Band Shall Never be
Broken." The evening was most delight-
Mr. Boyce and Dr. Earl Cranston, both
of Cincinnati, and members of this frater-
nity, were present at other exercises of
Commencement. The whole week will be
remembered as one of the most pleasant
Commencements in the history of the Ohio
The music of the entire week was charm-
ing, and was furnished by the department.
Next year Miss Sara Stinson, who has
spent the past year in Paris, will resume
her work as instructor in Art ; and a new
member will be added to the faculty,
probably a graduate of Yale.
OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN.
The General Programme of the Com-
mencement Exercises is as follows :
SUNDAY, JUNE 23.
10:30 a. m, — Baccalaureate Address — President Super.
7:00 P. M.— Annual Sermon— Henry A. Buttz, D. D., LL.
D., President of Drew Theological Seminary, Madi-
son, N. J.
MONDAY, JUNE 24.
7:30 p. M. — Annual Contest of the Literary Societies — Adel-
phia, Athenian and Philomathean.
TUESDAY, JUNE 2S.
7:30 p. M. — Alumni Exercises and Concert, followed by
( WEDNESDAY, JUNE 26.
10:00 A. M. — Commencement Exercises of the Pedagogical
2:00 p. M. — Meeting of Board of Trustees.
8.00 p. M. — Annual Address by the Rt. Rev. Samuel Fal-
lows, D. D., LL. D., of Chicago.
THURSDAY, JUNE 27.
9:30 a. m. — Commencement Exercises of the Collegiate De-
All these exercises are public except the session of the
Board of Trustees.
Below are the Programmes for Com-
Eighth Annual Commencement
JUNE 24, 7:30 p. m.
a. Andante ; b. Allegro ; Symphony No. 3, Haydn. — The
Misses Grace Gist, Florence Craig, Grace
Reah and Bertha PIoover.
An Outlook — Fannie C. Bean,
Crises — Margaret A. Dick.
A Geometrical Simile — ^J. Chase Dowd.
Seng Without Words, No, 19, Mendelssohn — Miss Grace
The following speakers are transferred from Thursday's
The Search for Truth — Pascal A. Bright,
Garibaldi — William P. Collier.
Summer Night, Thomas — Miss Madge Buck.
Is Our Education Sufficiently Progressive? — Charles W.
The Poet's Mission — Frank C. Schofield.
Boat Song, Bendel — Miss Grace Reah.
The Aryan — R.\LPH C Super.
Presentation of Diplomas.
Annie Laurie (Ladies' Quartette) — The Misses Grace
Gist, Florence Craig, Madge Buck and Dollie
THURSDAY, JUNE 27, 9:00 a. m.
Chorus — Spring Song— Pinsiiti.
Education Essential to Moral Progress — U. M. Mc-
Oliver Cromwell — I. M. Foster.
a. Wiegenlied, Henseli ; b. Novelette, Godard—M.iss Lulu
The Ethical Lessons of History — Cly'DE Brown.
Triumphs of Science — T. A. Martin.
Slumber Song, Schumann — Miss Florence Craig.
Isis Unveiled — Amy Wiehr.
The Government and the Individual — Thos. S. Hogan.
The Last Idea of Von Weber, Cramer — Miss Anna
Faraday — F. H. Super.
The Arbiter of Truth— T. L. Young.
Chorus — Send Out Thy Light — Gounod.
Presentation of Diplomas, by Bishop Fallows.
Some objection has from time to time
been made by the Graduates of the Uni-
versity to the short pedagogical course, on
the ground that now and then those who
have merely received certificates represent
them as diplomas. While this is to be re-
gretted, it can not properly be urged that
the abuse of a thing should abolish its
legitimate use. Considering the condi-
tion of what is called " normal education"
in our State, and indeed in other States,
there is a legitimate place for a short
course — legitimate in so far as it does not
profess to be what it manifestly is not. A
three years' course is not as good as one
covering twice that length of time, and
common honesty ought not to be slow to
recognize the difference. But there is
fraud in the effort to make one appear
just as valuable as the other. An experi-.
ence of some ten years with our shorter
course has led us to believe that it is serv-
ing a useful purpose. It has a certain
completeness not provided in the courses
that are intended to be continuative.
Those, therefore, who for any reason can
not go on, will find it to their advantage to
round out their studies, in a measure at
least, by completing our short course.
And it will hardly be contended that all
those whose ambition does not look be-
yond the public school, except to the nar-
rower needs of practical life, ought to be
expected to spend four years in college,
while we are not ready to make any state-
ments as to the future, the present de-
mand seems to make our duty plain to
this extent at least, that if any modifica-
tion of this course is called for, it should
be in the direction of a more thorough
mastery of the subjects it embraces. We
shall be glad to discontinue it as soon as
the nature of our educational conditions
makes it advisable. We shall at least
not degrade our degree of Bachelor of
Pedagogy by giving it for less work than
OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN.
For a number of years no more serious
lack has been felt by the management of
the University than that of a dormitory
for ladies. It has sometimes been diffi-
cult for both students and teachers to find
suitable boarding places within a conven-
ient distance of the college buildings.
Fortunately this lack will no longer exist.
The College Place Improvement Co. has
offered to the Trustees to put up a well
planned building, just outside of the col-
lege campus that will accommodate from
thirty to forty boarders, and the offer has
been accepted. The building is in pro-
gress of erection and will be pushed
forward to completion as rapidly as possi-
ble. It may not be quite ready for occu-
pancy by the opening of the Fall Term,
but the delay will not exceed a few weeks.
By this arrangement it will be possible to
provide furnished rooms with heat and
light, together with board, for a sum
ranging from 8150.00 to S200.00 per year.
The hall will be built of pressed brick,
three stories high, with two fronts, and
conveniently arranged in every way. A
competent steward will be put in charge,
and the occupants may expect to be well
At the recent commencement the Trus-
tees of the University conferred the de-
gree of Bachelor of Arts upon five young
men, P. A. Bright, of Logan ; R. C. Super,
son of President Sisper ; F. C. Schofield,
of Fayetteville, Mo.; W. P. Collier, of
Wheeling, West Va., and C. W. Cookson,
of Shawnee ; the degree of Bachelor of
Pedagogy on three young men, U. M. Mc-
Caughey, of Triadelphia; Sebastian Thom-
as, of Ashland, and Charles W. Cookson ;
that of Bachelor of Science on four young
men, Francis H. Super, son of President
Super ; Thos. L. Young, of Daleton ; S.
T. Muraj'ama, of Tokio, Japan, and T. A.
Martin of Springfield ; that of Bachelor of
Philosophy on three young men and one
young lady, Clyde Brown, of McConnels-
viUe ; T. S. Hogan, of Wellston ; I. M.
Foster and Amy Wiehr, of Athens. The
degree of Master of Science was con-
ferred upon C. S. Coler, Principal of San-
dusky High School ; Wilbur Colvin, of
Harriman, Tenn.; William L. Skaggs, of
Festus, Mo., and H. R. Holcomb, of Col-
lege Springs, la. Mr. John A. Shott was
made Master of Philosophy. Professors
Holcomb and Shott, the latter Professor-
elect in Carthage College, 111., were mem-
bers of the class of '92. Dr. A. B Grif-
fiths was made a Doctor of Science. Dr.
Griffiths has a remarkable record as a Sci-
entist. He is a member of many learned
societies in the different European coun-
tries. He has made several important
discoveries in bacteriology and is regarded
as the highest authority in the world on
ptomaines. Among his numerous works
are, "A Treatise on Manures," "The Di-
seases of Crops," " Manures and Their
Uses," " Researches on Physiology of
the Invertebrata," " Our Certain Eocene
Formations of Western Servia," etc.
The degree of Doctor of Letters was
conferred upon Elmer S. Cox, of Sidney,
Ohio ; L. D. Bonebrake, Supt. of the Mt.
Vernon Schools and a member of the State
Board of Examiners, and A. M. Post, of
the Supreme Court of Nebraska, were
made honorary Masters of Arts. The Rev.
A. B. Carver, of Yonkers, New York, and
the Rev. F. S. Davis, of Zanesville, were
made honorary Doctors of Divinity. The
degree of Doctor of Philosophy was not
conferred upon any one in course but Pro-
fessor J. P. Patterson, of Colorado received
\X. pro Iionore . One lady received the de-
gree of Master of Philosophy on thesis,
Miss Helena T. Goessman, daughter of
Professor Goessman, of the Massachusetts
Agricultural College, Amherst. Three
students received certificates showing that
they had completed the shorter pedagog-
ical course, and two that they had com-
pleted the commercial course.
One of the subjects discussed at the
Ohio College Association in Sandusky
was the amount of Greek that should be
required for admission to the Freshman
Class. The matter had been discussed at
previous meetings and was again referred
to a committee consisting of President
Super and Prof. Phillips, of Marietta.
This committee reported that the amount
of Greek should consist of four books of
the Anabasis, three books of Homer and
some practice in the writing of simple
Attic Prose. It was found that some of
the colleges, among them the Ohio Uni-
versity, already require this, but a consid-
erable number require less. 'The commit-
tee further recommended that these re-
quirements for the classical course be made
the condition for membership in the As-
sociation. It was not deemed necessary
OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN.
to prescribe the time students should
spend on this work, but it was suggested
that for pupils who come up regularly
through the High School, three years
ought to be allowed.
The report of the Committee was laid
on the table without much discussion.
It is well known that the so-called "Com-
mittee of Twelve" were appointed to give
effect to a resolution of the American Phi-
lological Association, which reads as fol-
^^ Resolved, That, in the opinion of the
American Philological Association, in any
programme designed to prepare students
for the classical course, not less than three
years of instruction in Greek should be re-
This resolution is in accordance with
the practice of most Eastern Colleges and
many of those farther west. It is intended
to apply to the classical course only, and
is clearly in the interest of sound learning.
We cannot help but regard the rejection
of the recommendation by the Ohio Asso-
ciation as a step in the wrong direction, or
rather a failure to take a step in the right
direction. Nevertheless, in view of the
non-representative character of the asso-
ciation and of the difficulty in enforcing
any approximately strict conditions of
membership the effect will probably be
very slight. The colleges that have al-
ready adopted the standard recommended
will make no change, and those that have
not hitherto done so would probably make
none in any case.
We are not among those who believe
that the value of the higher education de-
pends wholly or chiefly upon the amount
of Greek it contains. There have been
many thoroughly educated men and
women who did not know Greek. At the
same time we maintain that Greek con-
tains a larger number of elements that en-
ter into a liberal education than any other
single subject. It is not necessary, it is
true, to study the language to get out of
the general subject its educational value.
But the danger is that those who do not
make the acquaintance of the subject
through the medium of the language will
not make it out at all. The student who
merely learns the Grammar, if he learns it
well, will be amply repaid for his labor.
He will have required a knowledge of the
noblest medium for the expression of
thought ever invented by man. But
Greek civilization has its lessons — may
teach us moderns not only what to do, but
also what to leave undone. It demon-
strates how mere intellectual superiority
can not save a nation. The great danger
that is pretty certain to grow out of a dis-
carding of Greek is that which threatens
liberal education in general. It represents
preeminently the culture-side of educa-
tion, and shows the connection of the
present with the remote past. It is the
chief antidote against the purely and nar-
rowly practical in education. We are the
champions of Greek, not so much for the
language itself as for the class of studies it
represents in a wider sense. The more
thoroughl}^ Greek is mastered the greater
will be its value, and the larger the satis-
faction it brings to the student.
A TOLERABLY regular annual attend-
ance at the very irregularly attended
meetings of the Ohio College Association
has made it pretty clear that however use-
ful the Association may be, abstractly
considered, its practical advantages are
very small. The perso7inel of the different
sessions at the same meeting is frequently
so different as to make them virtually
different bodies. The number present
from each institution is usually so limited
as to preclude the idea that it is in any
sense a representative body. Unpremed-
itated questions now and then come up
for discussion and decision, yet nothing is
decided after a vote has been taken. It'
might thus easily happen that a vote taken
the forenoon would be reversed by that of
the afternoon. So little concert of action is
there among the colleges of Ohio, and so
variable are their standards, that they
have almost nothing in common but the
name and location within the same State.
If there is any merit in running the higher
education on the go-as-you-please plan, we
of the Buckeye State have a fine oppor-
tunity to test it.
Professor Boughton attended the meet-
ings of the National Educational Associa-
tion at Denver ; President Super and Pro-
fessors Chapin, Gordy and Atkinson were
present at the State Teachers' Association
in Sandusky. Professor Atkinson was on
the programme of the College Section,
and Professor Gordy on that of the Gen-
eral Association, to discuss the normal
school question. President Super read a
I paper before the Modern Language Sec-
OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN.
tion on the letter "C," in the Romance
Tongues. He also attended the meeting
of the American Philological Association,
which met this year in Cleveland. We
believe this Association has met but twice
in its history west of the Alleghenies.
The attendance this year from Ohio, out-
side of Cleveland, was very small. The
next meeting will be held in Providence,
R. I., beginning on the seventh of July,
We are particularly impressed — if this
expression may be used of what does not
impress — with the defective enunciation
of many of the readers who presented
papers at the Philological Association. It
would seem that teachers who are in
the habit of lecturing to their students
would feel it incumbent upon themselves
to present their matter in such a form as
to make it fairly interesting. It requires no
great degree of elocutionary training to
make a reasonably good reader. But if
the Cleveland meeting is an index, the
lecture system in American colleges leaves
much to be desired. The address of the
President was delivered in such a low tone
of voice and so monotonously • that wc
venture the assertion that not half the
audience in a small room understood one-
fourth of what was said. Yet the reputa-
tion of the speaker is a sufficient guaran-
tee that it contains much well worth
hearing. Other papers, and a good deal
of the discussion, was in the same lifeless
manner. If this is the usual way of doing
we do not wonder that the meetings are
thinly attended. It is a good deal more
satisfactory to read the transactions, at a
time and place of one's own choosing, than
to go a long distance to listen to some of
the papers when presented by their au-
During the past year the religious in-
terests of the University have been well
cared for both by the faculty and the
students. A majority of the latter seemed
to be impressed with the conviction that
they were in a large measure responsible
for whatever influence Christianity might
have upon the thought and life of their
fellows ; they accordingly strove to live
and act in the light' of this responsibility.
Dr. Powell gave a series of weekly talks
on " Prophecy," that extended through a
large part of the year. Several clergymen
stationed in the vicinity of Athens deliv-
ered Sunday lectures in the college
chapel on topics connected with the Chris-
tian life. Among these were Rev. F. S.
Davis, of Zanesville ; Rev. Chas. B. Tay-
lor, of McArthur ; the Rev. A. J. Hawk,
of Wellston, and the Rev. Wm. E. Roe, of
Marietta. The faculty hope to be able to
provide a still more extensive course dur-
ing the next year.
During the past year the University
has furnished instruction in the commer-
cial branches and in stenography and
typewriting. This has been done for the
legitimate reason that there is a justi-
fiable demand for persons who are profi-
cient in these branches. The knowledge
and training they bring with them
are in their sphere as valuable as any
other. That they have been abused does
not invalidate this statement. They have
no educational value when regarded solely
as an end in themselves. Unfortunately
this is the point of view from which they
are popularly regarded. The fact is lost
sight of that an ignorant man cannot
even write a letter correctly, easily as the
achievement seems to most people. He
may write something that will convey his
meaning, but that is the best that can be
said of it. Our work in these branches
will, while having a practical end in
view, also keep before the student
their educational value. The two should
never be separated. After due delibera-
tion the Faculty have therefore resolved
to allow a reasonable amount of credit in
the college course for this work, when sat-
isfactorily performed. It is believed that
in this way a business education, or the
business element in any education, will
gain a dignity that it does not otherwise
possess. A business education is not
something that any unsophisticated youth
can acquire in a few weeks, or at most, in
a few months ; it demands both knowledge
and training. Even a business man may
be, and he certainly ought to be, liberally
educated. Both he and his business
will be the better for it. We hope to con-
tribute something to the formation of a
more enlightened public opinion on this
OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN.
In accordance with the conditions of
the bequest the Emerson Prize Poem
Fund is again available this year. A
number of verses in competition were sub-
mitted to the Faculty. These were sent
to Mr. Maurice Thompson, of Crawfords-
ville, Ind., and Mrs. Annie Fields, of
Boston, for adjudication. As it happened
the judges do not quite agree, one putting
second the production the other places
first, and vice versa. The two first will
therefore have to be placed in the hands
of a third judge for final decision. The
fact that there is a substantial agreement
in the verdict already rendered, affords a
strong presumption that it is just. It is
proper to say that neither knew the con-
clusion reached by the other.
Mr. I. M. Foster ('95), will enter the
Harvard Law School next Fall.
Mr. Thos. McFarland ('94), will teach
next year in the State of Tennessee.
Professor Bowman spent the greater
part of his vacation at his home in Lynch-
We hope to have another number of
the BulUtin ready by the first of next
Professors Conaway and Higley spent
part of their vacation attending lectures
at the Chicago University.
Professor Hoover had charge during
the summer, as usual, of the classes in
Mathematics at Chautauqua.
Mr. Clyde Brown ('95), gave instruc-
tion in the Institutes of Morgan, Athens,
Vinton and Jefferson counties.
Mr. U. M. McCaughey ('95), has been
chosen to take charge of the Fultonham
Academy for the ensuing year.
Miss Findley attended the National
Convention of Elocutionists, held in Bos-
ton, during the last days of June.
Mr. John A. Shott ('92), for three
years Professor of Natural Science in the
Lebanon Valley College, has been elected
to a similar position in the Carthage Col-
Mr. Fred Sillery, an undergraduate,
will be out of college next year to take
charge of the schools of Cheshire.
Professor Gordy conducted Institutes
in Crawford Co., Pa., and in Morgan,
Athens, Coshocton and Perry counties in
Miss Sarah Stinson, who spent the last
year in Paris, in study, will resume charge
of the Art Department at the opening of
Mr. C. W. Cookson ('95), who was for
some time a student at Wooster Universi-
ty, and for several years Superintendent of
the schools of Shawnee, has been elected
to a similar position at New Straitsville.
Mr. L. E. Armstrong ('94), who taught
last year in Tennessee, has been elected
to the Principalship of the High School of
Rawlins, Wyoming, and is already on his
new ground ready for business. Mr. Arm-
strong expects to make teaching his life
work, and has made very thorough prepa-
ration for his chosen profession.
Mr. F. C. Schofield ('95), has been
preaching in several Baptist churches in
the vicinity of Athens during the present
year. He has had a varied career as a
student. His home is in Missouri ; he has
been in attendance at the Denver Univer-
sity, at Rochester University and here,
and has made his way through college en-
tirely by preaching and teaching.
Mr. F. W. Bush ('92), after teaching
three years very successfully in McCon-
nelsville, has decided to change his occu-
pation. He has purchased an interest in
the Athens Messefiger a?id Herald, and will
henceforth assist in its management. As
Mr. Bush is an entertaining writer and an
energetic man, he will no doubt contribute
materially to the success of the paper.
Perhaps an attachment for Athens, formed
during the former years of his sojourn,
contributed to his return.
Mr. G. W. Reed ('88), who, since his
graduation, has been teaching in Colorado
and Utah, will soon return to his native
State. He has been elected Principal of
the McConnelsville High School, and ex-
pects to assume the duties of his position
at the opening of the next school year.
That he will justify the action of the Board
to which he owes his election, and satisfy
his constituents, we do not doubt.
OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN.
Rev. C. W. Rishell (Ph. D., '92), who
has recently been elected Professor of
Historical Theology in the Boston Uni-
versity School of Theology, will prepare
the volume on "Christian Evidences" for
the Crooks-Hurst Series.
Nearly one hundred students were in
attendance in the various departments of
the O. U. during the summer term. The
instructors were Professors Evans and
Dunkle, Miss Stinson, and Mr. Martin. In
addition to these, Professor Atkinson and
Mr. Young conducted classes in Physics
and Chemistry. It is probable that here-
after all the departments of the College
will be carried on during several weeks
of July and August.
In the current number of Popular Sci-
ence, Professor Chapin begins a series of
articles on Modern Disinfectants.
C. M. Shepard spent six weeks at Cold
Spring Harbor, in the study of Biology.
He returned to Athens about the middle
Miss Kate Cranz received the degree
of A. M. from Heidelberg University at
President Super delivered two ad-
dresses before the Gallia County Teach-
Professor Bemis, whose dismissal
from the University of Chicago has at-
tracted such wide-spread attention, gave
a course of lectures before the O. U. sev-
eral years ago. At the same time he in-
vestigated a Hocking Valley strike which
was then in progress and published a
monograph upon it.
Miss Mabel K. Brown, one of our
instructors, is spending the summer
months in France. She will return about
the 10th of September.
Miss King passed most of her vacation
at her home in Tennessee.
Dr. William Waddle, of Chillicothe,
for a quarter of a century a trustee of the
O. U., died on the 23d of August, at the
age of eighty-four. He resigned his
trusteeship a few years ago on account of
increasing infirmities. He was, when in
his prime, one of the leading men of this
section of the State.
This Institution provides courses lead-
ing to the degree of
Bachelor of Art.
Bachelor of Pedagogy.
Bachelor of Philosophy.
Bachelor of Science.
At the close of the Freshman
year much of the work is elective.
There is also a thorough course
In addition to the courses lead-
ing to a degree, instruction is given
in Electrical Engineering, Prepara-
tory Medical work, Stenography
and Type-Writing, Commercial
The regular tuition is Thirt}' Dol-
lars per year.
There is a summer term every
3'ear during the month of July and
part of August.
Send for a Catalogue to the President.
OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN.
"Elements of Plane Geometry," by
John Macnie, in White's Series of Mathe-
The same firm has also sent us "White's
Outline Studies in the History of the
United States." These "Studies" are in-
tended to supplement the standard school
histories by directing attention to the dif-
ferent phases entering into the civilization
that was developed on the North Ameri-
can continent. A long list of works is
given, from which the answers to the va-
rious questions are to be culled. .While
the book is a small one, the pupil who
makes his way through it will acquire a
most competent knowledge of the history
of his country, taking the term history in
its broadest sense. Its use will be an
effectual antidote against the mischievous
custom of teaching and studying history
from a single text-book.
"School Interests and Duties," by R.
M. King. The object of this book is a
wholesome one, viz., namely to show the
general public that it is unwise to throw
the whole responsibility for the schools
upon the teacher. While it is true
to some extent that the school is as
the teacher, it is true in a wider sense that
the school is as the community. There
are many places in this country where
the best teacher would be entirely out of
his place because of an unsympathetic
environment. How often has experience
shown this to be the case? It is the time-
server who succeeds and the honest man
who fails. The man who gets along
smoothly is generally the one who is care-
ful not to arouse the people out of their
familiar habits of thought and who is
always ready to make his patrons believe
they are wiser than other people. There
are communities in which it is next to im-
possible to make the schools good except
by a process so slow that the official life
of a teacher is far too short to compass it.
There are communities so far behind the
times that pedagogical work of a high
order among them is utterly out of the
question. The misfortune is that the
people who ought to read this book will
not do so.
"The Vicar of Wakefield, with an Intro-
duction." We are glad to see this immor-
tal story, equally the delight of old and
young, issued in a cheap and yet substan-
A SERIES of Monographs, prepared un-
der the auspices of the National Geo-
graphic Society. The following have been
" General Physiographic Processes."
" General Physiographic Features."
" Physiographic Regions of the United
" Beaches and Tidal Marshes of the At-
" Present and Extinct Lakes of Ne-
"The Northern Appalachians."
" Psychology in Education," by R. N.
Roark. Another Psychology ! How
great is the number in our day of those
who flatter themselves that they can add
something to this intricate subject or ar-
range its well known data in a more in-
teresting way. A somewhat hasty exam-
ination of the book before us hasimpressed
us rather favorably. While it contains a
good many things that one would not ex-
pect to find in a text-book on psychology,
they are not for that reason necessarily
out of place. There are many teachers
who could read it with profit. But the
persons who are competent to write a
Psychology from the standpoint of the
Science, as it is to-day, can be counted on
the fingers of one hand.
The American Book Company have
just issued a new "Webster's Academic
Dictionary," abridged from the "Interna-
tional Webster." It is preeminently what
it professes to be, " a comprehensive dic-
tionary at a small cost." The type, though
small, is very clear. There are two col-
umns to the page, and an abundance of
illustrations. The several appendices con-
tain a pronouncing vocabulary of Biblical,
Classical, Mythological, Historical and
Geographical proper names ; quotations,
words, phrases, etc., from various lan-
guages; abbreviations used in writing and
printing ; a concise account of the chief
deities, heroes, etc., in the Greek and Ro-
man Mythologies, etc. Like all the books
issued by this house it is substantially
OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN.
H. A. GuERBER has added to his
" Myths of Greece and Rome" a volume
of "Myths of Northern Lands." The
author relates in his interesting way the
Germanic legends concerning the Begin-
ning of all Things, Oden, Thor, the
Valkyrs, the Elves, etc. We do not know
any other book in English covering the
same ground that is so attractively written
as this. It is fully illustrated, and is
supplied with a glossary and index.
THE HUDSON SCHOOL . .
'The Hudson Automatic School
Desk" and Hall, Church and Office
. . School Supplies of all kinds . .
Invaluable Aids to Teachers
and Students of Geography
on the Physical Features
of the Earth's Surface.
Published monthly e.\cept
in July and August.
Monograph No. i, on
JOHN W. POWELL,
Late Director U. S. Geological Survey.
Annual Subscription — ten Mono-
graphs—payable in advance, $1.5°
Annual Subscription — five copies
to one address - payable in ad-
vance, ...... 5.00
Single Monographs, 20
. • . THE . • .
Baker & Taylor Co.
5 and 7 E. I6tli Street,
Carry a full line of
And a complete Stock of School
and College Text-Books.
Remit "with order to
American Book Company
New York • Cincinnati • Chicago
LESS THAN HALFTHE-
PRICt OF OTHtR BRANDS
SOLD !N CANS ONLY
OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN. 19
Stories for Children. (Eclectic School Readings.)
First Reader Grade. By MRS. Chas. A. LANE. 12mo, cloth, 104 pages;
profuse illustrations 25 cents.
Fairy Stories and Fables. (Eclectic School Readings.)
Second Reader Grade. Retold by James Baldwin. 12mo, cloth, 176
pages ; profuse illustrations 35 cents.
Old Greek Stories. (Eclectic School Readings.)
Third Reader Grade. By JAMES BALDWIN. 12mo, cloth, 208 pages;
numerous illustrations 45 cents.
By THOMAS J. MORGAN, LL. D., ex-United States Commissioner of
Indian Affairs ; Member of the National Council of Education, etc. 12mo,
cloth, with the American flag in colors, 368 pages ;$1.00
Elementary Lessons in Zoology.
A guide in studying animal life and structure in field and laboratory.
By James G. Needham, M. S., Instructor in Zoology, Knox College,
Galesburg, 111. 12mo, cloth, 302 pages and numerous illustrations ■
First Year in French.
By L. C. Syms. Especially designed for the use of children, and for
schools desiring an introduction to French literature in the hands of pupils
in the grammar grades, in accordance with the recommendations of the
Committee of Ten. 12mo, cloth, 128 pages 50 cents.
The Academic French Course.
In accordance with the latest grammatical rules adopted by the French
Academy. Second year. By ANTOINE MUZZARELLI. 12mo, cloth, 342
Germania Texts No. 2.
Gervinus on Goethe und Schiller ; Lessing und Herder. Paper, thin,
16mo, 22 pages 10 cents.
Bilder aus der Deutchen Litteratur.
By J. Keller, Professor of German Language and Literature in the
Normal College of New York. 12mo, cloth, 225 pages 75 cents.
Single copies of any of the above books will be sent by mail,
postpaid, 0)1 receipt of the price. Special terms for introduction.
Correspondence is cordially invited and will have prompt attention.
American Book Company,
Chkago.'**' 3'7 Walnut Street, Cincinnati, O.
OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN.
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